Friday, May 21, 2010

Vegetables - Beet (Beta vulgaris) Health Benefits and Side Effects

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Beet is best known as the beetroot or garden beet and belong to the amaranth family. It is a perennial plant with leafy stems growing to 1–2 m tall.

Nutritional Supplement

1. Energy
2. Carbohydrates
3. fiber
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A
6. Beta-carotene
7. Trytophan
8. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
9. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
10. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
11. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
12. Vitamin B6
13. Folate (Vitamin B9)
14. Vitamin C
15. Calcium
16. Iron
17. Magnesium
18. Copper
19. Phosphorus
20. Potassium
21. Zinc
22. Magnesium
23. Betacyanin
24. Betaine
25. Etc.

Health benefits

A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Cell Apoptosis
In the assessment of the extract of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and its effect in suppressing the development of multi-organ tumors found that betanin, the major betacyanin constituent, may play an important role in the cytotoxicity exhibited by the red beetroot extract. Further studies are needed to evaluate the chemopreventive potentials of the beetroot extract when used alone or in combination with doxorubicin to mitigate the toxic side-effects of the latter, according to "Cytotoxic effect of the red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract compared to doxorubicin (Adriamycin) in the human prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines" by Kapadia GJ, Azuine MA, Rao GS, Arai T, Iida A, Tokuda H.(a)

2. Antioxidants
In the assessment of betacyanins and betaxanthins found in cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia ficus indica L. Mill. cv. Gialla and Rossa) and red beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) indicated that Betaxanthins were wholly soluble in the aqueous (bioaccessible) fraction after ultracentrifugation of the postintestinal (PI) digesta, whereas release of betacyanins from the matrix was incomplete. PI digesta inhibited dose-dependently the oxidation of methyl linoleate in methanol, an effect not correlated with the betalain content, according to "In vitro digestion of betalainic foods. Stability and bioaccessibility of betaxanthins and betacyanins and antioxidative potential of food digesta" by Tesoriere L, Fazzari M, Angileri F, Gentile C, Livrea MA.(b)

3. Cardiovascular diseases
In the classification of the effect of fruits and vegetables in blood pressure (BP) and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events found that approximately 3 hours after ingestion of a dietary nitrate load (beetroot juice 500 mL), BP was substantially reduced (Delta(max) -10.4/8 mm Hg); an effect that correlated with peak increases in plasma nitrite concentration. The dietary nitrate load also prevented endothelial dysfunction induced by an acute ischemic insult in the human forearm and significantly attenuated ex vivo platelet aggregation in response to collagen and ADP, according to "Acute blood pressure lowering, vasoprotective, and antiplatelet properties of dietary nitrate via bioconversion to nitrite" by Webb AJ, Patel N, Loukogeorgakis S, Okorie M, Aboud Z, Misra S, Rashid R, Miall P, Deanfield J, Benjamin N, MacAllister R, Hobbs AJ, Ahluwalia A.(c)

4. Lung and Skin Cancer
In the assessment of Beta vulgaris (beet) root extract and its effect on cancers found that in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity evaluation against the mice skin and lung bioassays also revealed a significant tumor inhibitory effect. The combined findings suggest that beetroot ingestion can be one of the useful means to prevent cancer, according to "Chemoprevention of lung and skin cancer by Beta vulgaris (beet) root extract" by Kapadia GJ, Tokuda H, Konoshima T, Nishino H.(d)

5. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Folate
In the investigation of the prevalence and multifactorial etiology of anemia among Indian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and its effect on anemia, found that Anemia, particularly iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, is highly prevalent among children with HIV infection. Micronutrient supplements (iron and, folate) combined with ART(antiretroviral therapy) improved anemia in HIV-infected children, according to "The prevalence and etiology of anemia among HIV-infected children in India" by Shet A, Arumugam K, Rajagopalan N, Dinakar C, Krishnamurthy S, Mehta S, Shet AS.(1)

2. Manganese
It is one of important trace in preventing osteoporosis, according to the study of "[Study of estrogen deficiency impact on manganese levels in teeth and mandible of rats after ovariectomy]. [Article in Polish]" by Rahnama M, Błoniarz J, Zareba S, Swiatkowski W.(2)and regulating blood sugar level, according to the study of "[An inadequate intake of manganese may favour insulin resistance in girls]. [Article in Spanish]" by Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM.(3)

3. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(4)

4. Potassium
Potassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of "Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia" by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (, researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma potassium concentration decreases.

5. Vitamin C
In the evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction. and it effects on pulmonary dysfunction found that At present, evidence from randomised-controlled trials is insufficient to recommend a specific role for vitamin C in the treatment of asthma. Further methodologically strong and large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed in order to address the question of the effectiveness of vitamin C in children with asthma but some outcome data showed effectiveness on lung function, symptom scores, IgE levels and inhaled steroid use. One small study showed a significant difference in % drop in FEV1 post-exercise, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(5)

6. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(6)

7. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Heart diseases
Fermentation products of sugar-beet fiber reduces bad cholesterol (LDL)by binding to them and expelling through digestive process, thus decreasing the risk of cholesterol plaque building up in the arterial walls. Other than that, beet also contains betaine that helps to lowers the levels of homocysteine, which is harmful to the blood vessels, according to "Fermentation products of sugar-beet fiber by cecal bacteria lower plasma cholesterol concentration in rats" by Hara H, Haga S, Kasai T, Kiriyama S.(I)

2. Prevent birth defect
Beet contains measurable amount of folate, which is essential to prevent neural tube defects by enhancing its functioning in synthesizing and repairing DNA aiding rapid and proper cell division and growth, according to "Folic Acid supplementation and pregnancy: more than just neural tube defect prevention" by Greenberg JA, Bell SJ, Guan Y, Yu YH.(II)

3. Cancer prevention
Since beetroot contains high amount of antioxidants that help to improve the immune function in fighting the forming of free radicals, by enhancing the proper cell replication and division, that reduce the risk of tumors and cancers, according to "Total extract of Beta vulgaris var. cicla seeds versus its purified phenolic components: antioxidant activities and antiproliferative effects against colon cancer cells" by Gennari L, Felletti M, Blasa M, Angelino D, Celeghini C, Corallini A, Ninfali P.(III)

4. Red blood cells
Iron helps to deliver oxygen ans nutrients to the body cells need due to its functioning of the production of red blood cells and formation of hemoglobin of that enhances the absorption of oxygen from the lung.

5. Etc.

Side effects
Oxalates Oxalates in the beet can cause kidney and gallbadder problem. People with above diseases should contact their doctor before consuming.
2. Increase the rick of lowering calcium absorption for people with weak digestive system.
3. Etc.

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