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Tempeh, the most nutritious of soy foods with high levels of protein, is a traditional soybean product originally from Indonesia. It is a cake form healthy foods made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process and can be found in health food stores throughout the year.
4. Dietary fiber
8. Vitamin A
9. Vitamin B6
10. Vitamin 12
11. Vitamin D
12. Vitamin E
13. Vitamin K
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Bone density
In the investigation of of calcium bioavailability from non-dairy foods containing moderate amounts of calcium is especially important in populations that have habitually low dairy consumption and theirs effect in low bone density of postmenopausal Malay women found that due to differences in the calcium content of tempeh, four servings of this product would be needed to get the same amount of absorbed calcium as that obtained from a 4-ounce glass of milk. Tempeh may provide readily available calcium for this population of women at risk for low bone mass, according to "Absorption of calcium from milk and tempeh consumed by postmenopausal Malay women using the dual stable isotope technique" by Haron H, Shahar S, O'Brien KO, Ismail A, Kamaruddin N, Rahman SA.(a)
2. Thrombolytic activity
In the assessment of isolated and sequenced the genomic gene and a cDNA clone encoding a novel protease (FP) from Tempeh and its thrombolytic activity found that the thrombolytic activity of FP was about 2.1-fold higher than that of Nattokinase when the concentration of plasminogen was 24 units/ml. These results suggest that FP is superior to Nattokinases in dissolving fibrin when absorbed into the blood, according to the study of "The fibrinolytic activity of a novel protease derived from a tempeh producing fungus, Fusarium sp. BLB" by Sugimoto S, Fujii T, Morimiya T, Johdo O, Nakamura T.(b)
3. Nutritious supplement for the elderly
In the observation of tempeh-like functional food. containing a high level of isoflavone with a high absorptivity and its nutritious effect found that by adding soybean germ (hypocotyl) that contained a large amount of isoflavone, we prepared a new isoflavone-enriched tempeh in the form of a granular fermented soybean-based food, which can serve as a nutritious supplement for the elderly, according to "Analysis of isoflavone content in tempeh, a fermented soybean, and preparation of a new isoflavone-enriched tempeh" by Nakajima N, Nozaki N, Ishihara K, Ishikawa A, Tsuji H.(c)
4. Hepatic inflammation
In the study of dietary supplementation of a soy protein enriched with isoflavones (HDI) and its effect on obese Zucker rats found that isoflavone-enriched soy protein favorably affects biomarkers of hepatic inflammation in obese Zucker fa/fa rats with fatty liver. Thus, dietary soy proteins enriched in isoflavones may be a promising agent to improve steatohepatitis in patients, according to "A casein diet added isoflavone-enriched soy protein favorably affects biomarkers of steatohepatitis in obese Zucker rats" by Gudbrandsen OA, Wergedahl H, Berge RK.(d)
B. Health benefits according to the concentration
It is one of important trace in preventing osteoporosis, according to the study of "[Study of estrogen deficiency impact on manganese levels in teeth and mandible of rats after ovariectomy]. [Article in Polish]" by Rahnama M, Błoniarz J, Zareba S, Swiatkowski W.(1)and regulating blood sugar level, according to the study of "[An inadequate intake of manganese may favour insulin resistance in girls]. [Article in Spanish]" by Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM.(1)
protein in Tempeh'is not only beneficial to the cardiovascular diseases, according to the study of "Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health: an American Heart Association Science Advisory for professionals from the Nutrition Committee" by Sacks FM, Lichtenstein A, Van Horn L, Harris W, Kris-Etherton P, Winston M; American Heart Association Nutrition Committee(2), but also plays an important role in treating diabetes, according to "Effects of soy protein and isoflavones on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity: a 6-mo double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in postmenopausal Chinese women with prediabetes or untreated early diabetes" by Liu ZM, Chen YM, Ho SC, Ho YP, Woo J.(3)
Beside it is best known for its function in enhancing the production of red blood cells for treaatemtyn of anemia, according to the study of " Update on anemia and neutropenia in copper deficiency" by Lazarchick J.(4), copper is alo an important trace mineral for the protection of bone density, according to the study of "The relationship of nutritional copper to the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis in rats" by Yee CD, Kubena KS, Walker M, Champney TH, Sampson HW.(5)
Phosphorus forms an important part of the process related to growth and maintenance of bones and teeth, according to the study of "Alterations in phosphorus, calcium and PTHrP contribute to defects in dental and dental alveolar bone formation in calcium-sensing receptor-deficient mice" by Sun W, Sun W, Liu J, Zhou X, Xiao Y, Karaplis A, Pollak MR, Brown E, Goltzman D, Miao D.(6)
C. Other health benefits
1. Heart diseases and stroke
Since it contains high levels of phytochemicals which are essential for enhancing the immune system in fighting against forming of free radicals, and preventing the oxidation of bad cholesterol (LDL) in the blood stream, thus decreasing the risk of plaque building up against the arterial wall, causing heart diseases and stoke, according to the study of "Kudzu root: traditional uses and potential medicinal benefits in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases" by Wong KH, Li GQ, Li KM, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Chan K., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315814), researchers found that Further studies to define the active phytochemical compositions, quality standards and clinical efficacy are warranted. Strong interdisciplinary collaboration to bridge the gap between traditional medicine and modern biomedical medicine is therefore needed for the development of kudzu root as an effective medicine for the management of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
2. Weight loss and Diabetes
Fiber in tempeh not only helps to reduce weight by making the the feeling of fullness of the stomach because it is hard to digest(According to the study of Free-living, overweight and obese adults (N=204, body mass index 25 to 45) with baseline LDL cholesterol levels 130 to 200 mg/dL (3.4 to 5.2 mmol/L) were randomized; 144 were included in the main analysis of participants who completed the trial without significant protocol violations, conduceted by Provident Clinical Research, Glen Ellyn, posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20102847), researchers filed the conclusion that Consumption of a whole-grain RTE oat cereal as part of a dietary program for weight loss had favorable effects on fasting lipid levels and waist circumference), it also releases the glucose into the blood stream slowly, thus reducing the pressure of pancreas in production of insulin (see above study)
Since it contains high amount of magnesium and zinc, it not only helps the blood vessel to relax, thus increasing the blood flow to nourish all cells in the body, but also maintains the proper function of muscles, thus reducing muscle stiffness for patient with fibromyalgia., according to the study of "The relationship between serum trace element levels and clinical parameters in patients with fibromyalgia" by Sendur OF, Tastaban E, Turan Y, Ulman C., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18496697), researchers found that association between serum zinc level and number of tender points (P = 0.008) and that between fatigue and magnesium level (P = 0.003) was found as meaningful. According to the results of this study, it was asserted that serum magnesium and zinc levels may play an important role in the pathophysiology of FM.
4. Prostate health
Tempeh beside protect men against enlarge prostate due to high amount of zinc and genistein, it also helps to induce apoptosis, the self-destruct sequence the body uses to eliminate worn out or abnormal cells and maintain the prostate in the production of semen and normal sperm., according to the study of 1,320 men over the age of 40 in the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18044729%29researchers concluded that a protective effect of zinc intake on cadmium-induced prostatic injury, and may provide further rationale for investigating the impact of these factors individually and jointly on the etiology of prostate cancer.
5. Menopause and climacteric symptoms
Isoflavonoid in tempeh helps to induce the production of weak estrogen, that is important for women entering the stage of menopause when estrogen is reduced in great amount due to aging, according to the study of "Estrogen receptor β-selective phytoestrogenic formulation prevents physical and neurological changes in a preclinical model of human menopause" by Zhao L, Mao Z, Schneider LS, Brinton RD., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21738079)
1. Allergic reactions
It may cause allergic reaction from immune system for some people
Since contain a measure amount of axalates, it can cause problem for people untreated kidney and gallbladder diseases.
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