Barley is the species of Hordeum vulgare, belongs to Family Poaceae, a wonderfully versatile cereal grain with a rich nut-like flavor. It is one of the most popular cereal crops that can adapt to grow in many regions as healthy foods or animal feeds.
3. Dietary fiber
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Pantothenic acid (B5)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vitamin B9)
A. health benefits according to studies
1. Cholesterol-lowering effect
In the investigation of grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) and its lowering cholesterol effect found that Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain barley breads and breads enriched with HPMC, according to "Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect" by Kim H, Turowski M, Anderson WH, Young SA, Kim Y, Yokoyama W.(a)
2. Cardiovascular effects
In the evaluation of the the nutritional quality of adlay (AD), buckwheat (BW, WB) and waxy barley (WB), and theirs effect in cardivascular diseases in obese mice found that Consumption of BW- and WB-containing diets significantly improved several cardiovascular risk factors, according to the study of "Effect of adlay, buckwheat and barley on lipid metabolism and aorta histopathology in rats fed an obesogenic diet" by Son BK, Kim JY, Lee SS.(b)
3. Antioxidative and hypolipidemic effects
in the examination of barley leaf essence (BL) in a rabbit and it anti atherosclerosis effect found that 30% inhibition of hyperlipidemic atherosclerosis by BL was associated with a decrease in plasma lipids and an increase in antioxidative abilities (as measured by T50, lag phase and CL). These results suggest that the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of BL. according to "Antioxidative and hypolipidemic effects of barley leaf essence in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis" by Yu YM, Wu CH, Tseng YH, Tsai CE, Chang WC.(c)
In the observation of whole grains containing soluble fiber and their effects in overweight humans and humans with type 2 diabetes found that Consumption of 10 g of beta-glucan significantly reduced peak glucose response at 30 min and delayed the rate of glucose response. Area under the curve for 2 h-postprandial glycemic response was not affected by beta-glucan content, according to "Glucose and insulin responses to whole grain breakfasts varying in soluble fiber, beta-glucan: a dose response study in obese women with increased risk for insulin resistance" by Kim H, Stote KS, Behall KM, Spears K, Vinyard B, Conway JM.(d)
5. Anti breast cancer
In the analyzing the he crude and partially purified lunasin from barley and its effect in cancer found that barley suppressed colony formation in stably ras-transfected mouse fibroblast cells induced with IPTG, according to the study of "Barley lunasin suppresses ras-induced colony formation and inhibits core histone acetylation in mammalian cells" by Jeong HJ, Lam Y, de Lumen BO.(e)
B. Health benefits according to the concentration
1. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treat
a. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(1)
b. Cholesterol and cardivascular diseases, as the soluble fiber content of legumes and vegetables has also been shown to decrease LDL-C. Current investigations continue to explore this area in depth and examine potential synergies between dietary fiber and other phytochemicals that may lower cholesterol, according to the study of "Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk" by Bazzano LA.(2)
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(4)
C. Other health benefits
1. Free radicals
Although selenium is found in very small quantities in our body, it is one of powerful antioxidants that not only helps to preserve the elasticity of our skin by protecting it against free radical damage but also enhances the immune system in guarding and regulating the normal process of DNA replication in normal cell division., according to the study of "Effect of exercise training, selenium and vitamin E on some free radical scavengers in horses (Equus caballus)" by Avellini L, Chiaradia E, Gaiti A., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10425718), researchers indicated that the training and diet supplements we used were able to significantly increase horse antioxidant defences in both the extracellular fluids and blood cells of our horses, thus decreasing peroxidative phenomena following physical exercise.
Beside it is important in regulating the kidney function in secreting waste and toxin ( according to the study of "Pilot study of dietary phosphorus restriction and phosphorus binders to target fibroblast growth factor 23 in patients with chronic kidney disease" Isakova T, Gutiérrez OM, Smith K, Epstein M, Keating LK, Jüppner H, Wolf M., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20631407)).
Copper and zinc are essential minerals in forming hemoglobin and red blood cells and enhance the absorption of oxygen from lung and nutrient from blood to nourish the cells in the body., according to the study of "Influence of copper, iron, zinc and fe (3) (+) haemoglobin levels on the etiopathogenesis of chronic calcific pancreatitis--a study in patients with pancreatitis" by Arumugam G, Padmanaban M, Krishnan D, Panneerselvam S, Rajagopal S., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20809271, researchers found that the results of the present study revealed that the levels of copper and iron, the pro-oxidants and zinc and selenium may influence calcification process in CCP patients. Hypoxia-related tissue injury due to the formation of oxidised haemoglobin may also contribute to the pathogenesis of calcification in pancreas.
4 . Manganese
Manganese beside plays an vital role for the proper and normal growth of human bone structure (accodring to the study of "Bone formation within alumina tubes: effect of calcium, manganese, and chromium dopants" byPabbruwe MB, Standard OC, Sorrell CC, Howlett CR., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15109850)), it also helps to reduce the risk of cancer, (according to the study of "The effects of 3, 4 or 5 amino salicylic acids on manganese-induced neuronal death: ER stress and mitochondrial complexes" by Yoon H, Lee GH, Kim DS, Kim KW, Kim HR, Chae HJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21477646 researchers indicated that the salicylate analogues and the antioxidants did not mediate ER stress in this model. The salicylate analogues reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reversed the deficient mitochondrial membrane potential that was induced by Mn. Taken together, the 3, 4, 5 ASA worked in a similar way, regulating the Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and protecting cells.
Dietary fiber helps to smooth the function of large intestine in waste secretion because the bulk and soft texture of fiber help hard, dry stools to pass easily, thus reducing the risk of constipation, according to the study of "A controlled, randomized, double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of a supplement of cocoa husk that is rich in dietary fiber on colonic transit in constipated pediatric patients" by Castillejo G, Bulló M, Anguera A, Escribano J, Salas-Salvadó J.
Niacin is essential in preventing the oxidation of bad cholesterol (LDL), that causes hardening of the arterial wall, resulting in heart diseases and stroke, according to the study of "Attenuation of the synthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 by niacin. A potential link between lipid lowering and fibrinolysis" Brown SL, Sobel BE, Fujii S., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7641354), researchers indicated that niacin, by decreasing PAI-1 expression, may potentiate fibrinolysis, thereby decreasing the stimulation of atherogenesis by clot-associated mitogens associated with microthrombi. Furthermore, the results imply that a pathogenetic link may exist between intracellular lipid metabolism and regulation of expression of fibrinolytic system components.
1. Gluten grains in barley cam cause problem for some people who are sensitive to gluten due to celiac disease, according to "Liver complications in celiac disease" by Zali MR, Rostami Nejad M, Rostami K, Alavian SM.(5)
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